It is the village chosen by the popes as their holiday resort, even before Urban VIII called the Ticino-born Carlo Maderno to build the papal residence there. In the centre of the settlement is theFreedom Squarewith theChurch of St Thomas of Villanovaand the fountain, both designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The same square is overlooked by thepapal palacewhich with the gardens and the Villa Barberini forms a complex that enjoys the right of extraterritoriality, i.e. it is directly dependent on the Vatican City State; a dome, towering over the pontifical complex, marks the presence of the astronomical observatory known as the Vatican Observatory. The pope's traditional summer sojourn makes Castel Gandolfo the most tourist resort of the Castelli, especially during the Sunday recitation of the Angelus or the audiences.